Causal relationship between particulate matter 2.5 (PM), PM absorbance, and COVID-19 risk: A two-sample Mendelian randomisation study.

Publication date: Jul 14, 2023

Several observational studies reported on the association between particulate matter ≤2. 5μm (PM) and its absorbance with coronavirus (COVID-19), but none use Mendelian randomisation (MR). To strengthen the knowledge on causality, we examined the association of PM and its absorbance with COVID-19 risk using MR. We selected genome-wide association study (GWAS) integration data from the UK Biobank and IEU Open GWAS Project for two-sample MR analysis. We used inverse variance weighted (IVW) and its multiple random effects and fixed effects alternatives to generally predict the association of PM and its absorbance with COVID-19, and six methods (MR Egger, weighted median, simple mode, weighted mode, maximum-likelihood and MR-PRESSO) as complementary analyses. MR results suggested that PM absorbance was associated with COVID-19 infection (odds ratio (OR) = 2. 64; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1. 32-5. 27, P = 0. 006), hospitalisation (OR = 3. 52; 95% CI = 1. 05-11. 75, P = 0. 041) and severe respiratory symptoms (OR = 28. 74; 95% CI = 4. 00-206. 32, P = 0. 001) in IVW methods. We observed no association between PM and COVID-19. We found a potential causal association of PM absorbance with COVID-19 infection, hospitalisation, and severe respiratory symptoms using MR analysis. Prevention and control of air pollution could help delay and halt the negative progression of COVID-19.

Concepts Keywords
Biobank Absorbance
Coronavirus Analysis
Hospitalisation Causal
Mendelian Covid


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease MESH causality
disease MESH infection
drug DRUGBANK Medical air
disease MESH Long Covid

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