Publication date: Jul 13, 2023
Advances in artificial intelligence have cultivated a strong interest in developing and validating the clinical utilities of computer-aided diagnostic models. Machine learning for diagnostic neuroimaging has often been applied to detect psychological and neurological disorders, typically on small-scale datasets or data collected in a research setting. With the collection and collation of an ever-growing number of public datasets that researchers can freely access, much work has been done in adapting machine learning models to classify these neuroimages by diseases such as Alzheimer’s, ADHD, autism, bipolar disorder, and so on. These studies often come with the promise of being implemented clinically, but despite intense interest in this topic in the laboratory, limited progress has been made in clinical implementation. In this review, we analyze challenges specific to the clinical implementation of diagnostic AI models for neuroimaging data, looking at the differences between laboratory and clinical settings, the inherent limitations of diagnostic AI, and the different incentives and skill sets between research institutions, technology companies, and hospitals. These complexities need to be recognized in the translation of diagnostic AI for neuroimaging from the laboratory to the clinic.
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