Different pieces of the same puzzle: a multifaceted perspective on the complex biological basis of Parkinson’s disease.

Publication date: Jul 13, 2023

The biological basis of the neurodegenerative movement disorder, Parkinson’s disease (PD), is still unclear despite it being ‘discovered’ over 200 years ago in Western Medicine. Based on current PD knowledge, there are widely varying theories as to its pathobiology. The aim of this article was to explore some of these different theories by summarizing the viewpoints of laboratory and clinician scientists in the PD field, on the biological basis of the disease. To achieve this aim, we posed this question to thirteen “PD experts” from six continents (for global representation) and collated their personal opinions into this article. The views were varied, ranging from toxin exposure as a PD trigger, to LRRK2 as a potential root cause, to toxic alpha-synuclein being the most important etiological contributor. Notably, there was also growing recognition that the definition of PD as a single disease should be reconsidered, perhaps each with its own unique pathobiology and treatment regimen.

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Concepts Keywords
Global Basis
Laboratory Biological
Lrrk2 Complex
Parkinsons Disease
Pathobiology Disorder


Type Source Name
disease MESH movement disorder
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease MESH pathological processes
disease MESH Brain Disorders
drug DRUGBANK Ribostamycin
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease MESH lifestyle
disease MESH pathogenesis
disease MESH death
drug DRUGBANK Rotenone
drug DRUGBANK L-Leucine
disease MESH inflammation
disease MESH parkinsonism
drug DRUGBANK Dopamine
drug DRUGBANK Etoperidone
disease MESH multiple sclerosis
disease MESH EBV infection
disease MESH malaria
pathway KEGG Malaria
disease MESH malignancies
disease MESH neurological disorder
disease MESH nitrosative stress
drug DRUGBANK Trihexyphenidyl
drug DRUGBANK Profenamine
disease MESH neurodegenerative diseases
disease MESH Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
drug DRUGBANK Oxygen
disease MESH oxidative stress
disease MESH dementia
drug DRUGBANK Metamfetamine
drug DRUGBANK Water
disease MESH metabolic diseases
drug DRUGBANK Isoxaflutole
disease MESH synucleinopathies
disease MESH neuroinflammation
disease MESH syndromes
drug DRUGBANK Cardiolipin
drug DRUGBANK Indoleacetic acid
disease MESH abnormalities
drug DRUGBANK Calcium
drug DRUGBANK Medical air
disease MESH infection
disease MESH REM sleep behavior disorder
disease MESH cognitive impairment
drug DRUGBANK Caffeine
pathway KEGG Autophagy
disease MESH Lewy body disease
drug DRUGBANK Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
disease MESH autoimmune diseases
disease MESH Parkinson disease
pathway KEGG Parkinson disease
drug DRUGBANK L-Phenylalanine
drug DRUGBANK Meperidine
drug DRUGBANK Levodopa
disease MESH complications
drug DRUGBANK Polyethylene glycol
pathway KEGG Apoptosis
disease MESH restless legs syndrome
disease MESH COVID 19
disease MESH posttraumatic stress disorder
drug DRUGBANK Dextrose unspecified form
pathway KEGG Oxidative phosphorylation
disease MESH atrophy
disease MESH multiple system atrophy

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