Evaluation of Outpatients in the Post-COVID-19 Period in Terms of Autonomic Dysfunction and Silent Ischemia.

Publication date: Jun 01, 2023

In this context, the objective of this study is to evaluate the 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) recordings, autonomous function with heart rate variability (HRV), and silent ischemia (SI) attacks with ST depression burden (SDB) and ST depression time (SDT) of post-COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods: The 24-hour ambulatory ECG recordings obtained >12 weeks after the diagnosis of COVID-19 were compared between 55 consecutive asymptomatic and 73 symptomatic post-COVID-19 patients who applied to the cardiology outpatient clinic with complaints of palpitation and chest pain in comparison with asymptomatic post-COVID-19 patients in Kars Harakani state hospital. SDB, SDT, and HRV parameters were analyzed. Patients who had been on medication that might affect HRV, had comorbidities that might have caused coronary ischemia, and were hospitalized with severe COVID-19 were excluded from the study. There was no significant difference between symptomatic and asymptomatic post-COVID-19 patients in autonomic function. On the other hand, SDB and SDT parameters were significantly higher in symptomatic post-COVID-19 patients than in asymptomatic post-COVID-19 patients. Multivariate analysis indicated that creatine kinase-myoglobin binding (CK-MB) (OR:1. 382, 95% CI:1. 043-1. 831; p=0. 024) and HRV index (OR: 1. 033, 95% CI:1. 005-1. 061; p=0. 019) were found as independent predictors of palpitation and chest pain symptoms in post-COVID-19 patients. The findings of this study revealed that parasympathetic overtone and increased HRV were significantly higher in symptomatic patients with a history of COVID-19 compared to asymptomatic patients with a history of COVID-19 in the post-COVID-19 period. Additionally, 24-hour ambulatory ECG recordings and ST depression analysis data indicated that patients who experienced chest pain in the post-COVID-19 period experienced silent ischemia (SI) attacks.

Concepts Keywords
Cardiology ambulatory monitoring
Hour coronary microvascular dysfunction
Kinase covid-19
Outpatient heart rate variability
Parasympathetic post-acute covid-19 syndrome


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease MESH Ischemia
disease VO time
disease MESH chest pain
drug DRUGBANK Creatine
disease IDO history
disease MESH post-acute covid-19 syndrome

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