Publication date: Jul 13, 2023
Global Coronavir us disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination efforts are being intensified to combat the pandemic. As the frequency of immunization against COVID-19 has increased, some adverse effects related to vaccination have emerged. Within this context, this article reviewed 62 Graves’ disease (GD) cases following COVID-19 vaccination, to probe the potential association between the vaccination and the onset of GD. A comprehensive search of the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases was conducted to collect GD cases following COVID-19 vaccination up to June 7, 2023. Among the 62 GD cases included in this review, there were 33 (53. 2%) new-onset GD and 10 (16. 1%) relapsed GD patients following mRNA vaccination, 14 (22. 6%) new-onset GD and 4 (6. 5%) relapsed GD patients following viral vector vaccination, and 1 (1. 6%) relapsed GD patients following inactivated vaccination. Median durations to symptoms onset for new-onset and relapsed GD were 12 (range: 1-60) and 21 (range: 5-30) days following mRNA vaccination, while 7 (range: 1-28) and 14 (range: 10-14) days following viral vector vaccination, respectively. While the definitive pathogenesis of GD following COVID-19 vaccination remains unclear, it might be associated with cross-immune responses triggered by molecular mimicry, and an adjuvant-induced autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome. However, due to the limited number of observed GD cases following COVID-19 vaccination and the lack of systematic experimental studies, a causal relationship between COVID-19 vaccination and the onset of GD has not been definitively confirmed. It should be highlighted that most of GD patients following COVID-19 vaccination experienced positive outcomes after treatment. In the broader context of ending the COVID-19 pandemic and reducing mortality rates, the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination significantly outweigh mild risks such as treatable GD. Adherence to the COVID-19 vaccination schedule is therefore imperative in effectively managing the pandemic.