The safety of vedolizumab in a patient with Crohn’s disease who developed anti-TNF-alpha agent associated latent tuberculosis infection reactivation: A case report.

Publication date: Jul 14, 2023

Latent tuberculosis (TB) infection screening before inducing anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) alpha agents is important to prevent TB reactivation. However, latent TB infection reactivation may still occur, and the ideal therapeutic strategy for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who develop active TB infection has not been established. Vedolizumab (VDZ) has a good safety profile, with low incidence rates of serious infections. However, its safety in patients with latent TB infection reactivation associated with anti-TNF-alpha agents remains unknown. A 21-year-old Vietnamese male patient presented to our hospital with hemorrhagic stool. He had no personal or family history of IBD or TB. Colonoscopy revealed multiple longitudinal ulcers and a cobblestone appearance in the terminal ileum, as well as multiple small erosions and aphtha throughout the colon. Computed tomography revealed a right lung nodular lesion. Serological interferon-gamma release assay and several culture tests were all negative. Thus, he was diagnosed with ileocolonic Crohn’s disease (CD) without TB. The intravenous anti-TNF-alpha agent administration with an immunomodulator was initiated. Computed tomography revealed nodular lesion expansion at the right lung, and serological interferon-gamma release assay was positive. He was diagnosed with latent TB infection reactivation. Anti-TNF-alpha agent with an immunomodulator was immediately discontinued, and anti-TB therapy was initiated. His endoscopic findings were still active, and VDZ was selected for maintenance therapy because VDZ has a favorable safety profile with low incidence rates of serious infections. Consequently, mucosal healing was achieved without active TB relapse. This case report presented a patient in whom VDZ was continued as maintenance therapy without inducing TB relapse in a patient with CD who developed latent TB infection reactivation associated with anti-TNF-alpha agents and summarized the safety profile of VDZ for patients with IBD with active or latent TB infection. VDZ may be a safe option for induction and maintenance therapy in patients with CD, even in cases with latent TB infection reactivation.

Concepts Keywords
Therapy Active
Tomography Agent
Tuberculosis Agents
Vietnamese Alpha
Year Anti


Type Source Name
drug DRUGBANK Vedolizumab
disease MESH latent tuberculosis infection
disease MESH infection
disease MESH infection reactivation
disease MESH inflammatory bowel disease
pathway KEGG Inflammatory bowel disease
disease MESH ulcers
drug DRUGBANK Methyprylon
pathway REACTOME Release

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