Publication date: Jul 17, 2023
Percutaneous transarterial embolization (PTE) represents a fast, safe and effective option for life-threatening anterior abdominal wall hematomas (AWHs) and those unresponsive to conservative treatment. Our study aims to assess cumulative results of safety, technical and clinical success of PTE performed in three high-volume tertiary referral centers and to evaluate the efficacy of the different embolic materials employed. A consecutive series of 124 patients (72. 8 +/- 14. 4 years) with AWHs of different etiology submitted to PTE were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Clinical success, defined as absence of recurrent bleeding within 96 h from PTE, was considered as primary endpoint. The results of the comparison of three groups based on embolic agent employed were also analyzed. Spontaneous AWHs accounted for 62. 1%, iatrogenic for 21. 8% and post-traumatic for 16. 1% of cases. SARS-CoV-19 infection was present in 22. 6% of patients. The most commonly embolized vessels were epigastric inferior artery (n = 127) and superior epigastric artery (n = 25). Technical and clinical success were 97. 6 and 87. 1%, respectively. Angiographic signs of active bleeding were detected in 85. 5% of cases. Four (4%) major complications were reported. The comparison of the three groups of embolic agents (mechanical, particulate/fluid and combined) showed no statistically significant differences in terms of clinical success. SARS-CoV-2 infection was found to be an independent factor for recurrent bleeding and poor 30-day survival. PTE performed with all the embolic agent employed in our centers is a safe and effective tool in the treatment of life-threatening anterior AWH of each origin.
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