COVID-19 vaccination coverage for half a million non-EU migrants and refugees in England.

Publication date: Dec 04, 2023

Despite evidence suggesting that some migrants are at risk of under-immunization and have experienced severe health inequities during the pandemic, data are limited on migrants’ COVID-19 vaccine coverage globally. Here we linked data from non-European Union migrants and resettled refugees to the national COVID-19 vaccination dataset in England. We estimated patterns in second and third dose delays and overdue doses between 12 December 2020 and 20 April 2022 by age, visa type and ethnicity. Of the 465,470 linked records, 91. 8% (427,073/465,470) of migrants received a second dose and 51. 3% (238,721/465,470) received a third. Refugees had the highest risk of delayed second (adjusted odds ratio 1. 66; 95% confidence interval 1. 55-1. 79) and third dose (1. 55; 1. 43-1. 69). Black migrants were twice as likely to have a second dose delayed (2. 37; 2. 23-2. 54) than white migrants, but this trend reversed for the third dose. Older migrants (>65 years) were four times less likely to have received their second or third dose compared with the general population in England aged >65 or older. Policymakers, researchers and practitioners should work to understand and address personal and structural barriers to vaccination for diverse migrant populations.

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Concepts Keywords
65years Covid
Migrants Delayed
Pandemic Dose
Vaccination England
White Eu


Type Source Name
disease MESH COVID-19
disease VO vaccination coverage
disease VO immunization
disease VO COVID-19 vaccine
disease VO vaccination
disease VO dose
disease VO population
disease VO vaccine
disease MESH death
disease MESH Vaccine Preventable Diseases
disease MESH Infection
disease VO immunized
drug DRUGBANK Serine
disease IDO country
disease VO age
disease VO Gap
disease VO vaccine dose
disease IDO history
disease MESH tuberculosis
pathway KEGG Tuberculosis

Original Article

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