Cytokine-responsive T- and NK-cells portray SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-responders and infection in multiple myeloma patients.

Publication date: Dec 04, 2023

Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) routinely receive mRNA-based vaccines to reduce COVID-19-related mortality. However, whether disease- and therapy-related alterations in immune cells and cytokine-responsiveness contribute to the observed heterogeneous vaccination responses is unclear. Thus, we analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with MM during and after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and breakthrough infection (BTI) using combined whole-transcriptome and surface proteome single-cell profiling with functional serological and T-cell validation in 58 MM patients. Our results demonstrate that vaccine-responders showed a significant overrepresentation of cytotoxic CD4 T- and mature CD38 NK-cells expressing FAS/TIM3 with a robust cytokine-responsiveness, such as type-I-interferon-, IL-12- and TNF-α-mediated signaling. Patients with MM experiencing BTI developed strong serological and cellular responses and exhibited similar cytokine-responsive immune cell patterns as vaccine-responders. This study can expand our understanding of molecular and cellular patterns associated with immunization responses and may benefit the design of improved vaccination strategies in immunocompromised patients.

Concepts Keywords
Benefit Cells
Cd4 Cov
Immunocompromised Cytokine
Leukemia Infection
Mrna Multiple


Type Source Name
disease VO vaccine
disease MESH infection
disease MESH multiple myeloma
disease MESH COVID-19
disease VO vaccination
disease IDO blood
disease MESH breakthrough infection
disease IDO cell
disease VO immunization
disease MESH immunocompromised patients

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