Follow-up for 3 years of a pediatric population diagnosed in 2018 with mother-to-child transmission of HIV in 8 Latin American countries in the PLANTAIDS cohort.

Publication date: Feb 20, 2024

The frequency of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Latin America has decreased considerably. However, new infections continue to be recorded, and the pediatric population remains one of the most vulnerable groups in this region. The main objective of the study was to describe the clinical, epidemiological and psychosocial characteristics of new diagnoses of HIV MTCT in 2018 in the PLANTAIDS network (Paediatric Network for Prevention, Early Detection and Treatment of HIV in Children) during the 3 years following diagnosis. Retrospective, multicenter, descriptive study based on a 3-year follow-up of patients diagnosed with HIV infection due to MTCT in 2018 in 10 hospitals in 8 Latin American countries (Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador, Panama, Guatemala and Venezuela). The hospitals belonged to the PLANTAIDS network, which is included in CYTED (Ibero-American Programme of Science and Technology for Development). The study population comprised 72 pediatric patients (38. 9% male). The median age at diagnosis was 2. 4 years (IQR: 0. 8-5. 4). There were 35 cases of opportunistic infections corresponding to 25 patients (34. 7%), with tuberculosis being the most common. Adequate childhood vaccination coverage was achieved in 80. 5%. There were 3 cases of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, and these were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classification, the most frequent clinical-immunological stage at all check-ups was C1. Three patients died from opportunistic infections and/or advanced HIV infection. It is important to diagnose HIV infection early in pediatrics, since early initiation of ART is associated with a decrease in mortality. Despite this, HIV infection has a poor prognosis in children, necessitating adequate follow-up to ensure adherence to health care and ART, although it can sometimes prove difficult in children.

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Concepts Keywords
4years Child
Died Child, Preschool
Hiv Children
Mexico Female
Pediatrics Follow-Up Studies
HIV Infections
Latin America
Opportunistic Infections
Retrospective Studies
SARS-CoV-2 infection


Type Source Name
disease VO population
disease MESH mother-to-child transmission
disease VO frequency
disease VO Human immunodeficiency virus
disease MESH infections
disease MESH HIV infection
pathway REACTOME HIV Infection
disease MESH opportunistic infections
disease MESH tuberculosis
pathway KEGG Tuberculosis
disease VO vaccination coverage
disease MESH SARS-CoV-2 infection
disease MESH Infectious Diseases
disease IDO immunodeficiency
disease VO vaccination
drug DRUGBANK Coenzyme M
disease MESH AIDS
disease VO pregnant women
drug DRUGBANK Tretamine
disease VO organization
disease VO immunization
disease IDO country
disease MESH cerebral toxoplasmosis
drug DRUGBANK Trestolone
disease MESH anemia
drug DRUGBANK Lopinavir
drug DRUGBANK Ritonavir
drug DRUGBANK Hyaluronic acid
drug DRUGBANK Abacavir
drug DRUGBANK Lamivudine
drug DRUGBANK Dolutegravir
drug DRUGBANK Zidovudine
drug DRUGBANK Nevirapine
drug DRUGBANK Efavirenz
drug DRUGBANK Emtricitabine
drug DRUGBANK Bictegravir
drug DRUGBANK Tenofovir alafenamide
disease IDO assay
disease MESH cytomegalovirus infection
disease MESH Pneumocystis jirovecii infection
disease MESH pneumonia
disease MESH otitis
disease MESH abscess
disease MESH varicella
disease MESH histoplasmosis
disease VO active immunization
disease VO vaccinated
disease MESH hepatitis
disease MESH diphtheria
disease MESH tetanus
disease VO conjugate vaccine
disease VO dose
disease VO Rotavirus
disease MESH poliomyelitis
disease VO vaccine
disease VO inactivated vaccine
disease MESH measles
pathway KEGG Measles
disease MESH rubella
disease MESH mumps
disease MESH yellow fever
disease VO Bacillus
drug DRUGBANK BCG vaccine
disease MESH lymphadenitis
disease IDO infection
disease MESH syndrome
disease MESH septic shock
disease MESH aspergillosis
disease MESH pneumothorax
disease MESH fulminant hepatitis
disease MESH causes
disease IDO history
disease VO ReCOV
disease VO Comirnaty
drug DRUGBANK Raltegravir
disease MESH abnormalities
disease VO immunized
disease VO effective
disease VO Viruses
drug DRUGBANK Yellow Fever Vaccine
drug DRUGBANK Varicella Zoster Vaccine (Live/Attenuated)
disease MESH malnutrition
disease MESH overweight
disease MESH obesity
disease VO Imovax ID
disease MESH Pertussis
pathway KEGG Pertussis
drug DRUGBANK Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
drug DRUGBANK Methyl pyrrolidone
disease MESH virus infection
disease MESH Morbidity
drug DRUGBANK Aminocaproic Acid
disease IDO cell
disease VO age
disease IDO blood
disease MESH nutritional status
drug DRUGBANK Acetylcysteine

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