Coronavirus disease 19 (Covid-19): A comparative study of pattern of liver injury in adult patients in different waves of Covid-19 infection.

Coronavirus disease 19 (Covid-19): A comparative study of pattern of liver injury in adult patients in different waves of Covid-19 infection.

Publication date: Feb 19, 2024

Liver dysfunction is a common manifestation of the COVID-19 infection. We aimed to study transaminase abnormalities through different waves of COVID-19 and their relations to disease severity or mortality. A retrospective study included 521 Egyptian patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Data was retrieved from the medical records of patients who were admitted from April 2020 to October 2021 in Kasr Al-Ainy Hospitals, Cairo University, with categorization according to disease severity in correspondence to the four waves. The median age was lower in the first wave compared to other waves, with male predominance across all waves. The most commonly encountered comorbidity overall was hypertension, followed by diabetes mellitus. White blood cells, ferritin, and interleukin-6 showed the highest median values in the second wave, with significantly higher median C-reactive protein on day 1 in the first wave. Forty percent of the patients showed elevated hepatic transaminases on admission in four waves, with no statistically significant difference between waves. On day 5, around half of the patients had elevated transaminases, with no significant difference between waves. Most CT findings were of moderate severity. Clinical severity was higher in the second wave. It was observed that the higher the disease severity, the greater the proportion of patients with elevated hepatic transaminases. The mortality rate was markedly high in cases who had elevated ALT or AST on day 5. The association between elevated enzymes on admission and mortality was seen in the first wave only, with a fatality rate of 22. 5% in cases with increased baseline ALT and AST versus 5% in those with normal baseline enzymes. There was no significant difference in transaminases between the four waves. Elevated transaminases were positively associated with increased mortality and severity, reflecting their prognostic value.

Concepts Keywords
Coronavirus COVID-19
Diabetes COVID-19 waves
Liver Mortality
October Transaminases


Type Source Name
disease MESH Coronavirus disease 19
disease MESH infection
disease MESH Liver dysfunction
disease MESH abnormalities
disease MESH comorbidity
disease MESH hypertension
disease MESH diabetes mellitus
disease IDO blood
disease MESH Long Covid

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