How close are we to a breakthrough? The hunt for blood biomarkers in Parkinson’s disease diagnosis.

How close are we to a breakthrough? The hunt for blood biomarkers in Parkinson’s disease diagnosis.

Publication date: Feb 21, 2024

Parkinson’s disease (PD), being the second largest neurodegenerative disease, poses challenges in early detection, resulting in a lack of timely treatment options to effectively manage the disease. By the time clinical diagnosis becomes possible, more than 60% of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of patients have already degenerated. Therefore, early diagnosis or identification of warning signs is crucial for the prompt and timely beginning of the treatment. However, conducting invasive or complex diagnostic procedures on asymptomatic patients can be challenging, making routine blood tests a more feasible approach in such cases. Numerous studies have been conducted over an extended period to search for effective diagnostic biomarkers in blood samples. However, thus far, no highly effective biomarkers have been confirmed. Besides classical proteins like α-synuclein (α-syn), phosphorylated α-syn and oligomeric α-syn, other molecules involved in disease progression should also be given equal attention. In this review, we will not only discuss proposed biomarkers that are currently under investigation but also delve into the mechanisms underlying the disease, focusing on processes such as α-syn misfolding, intercellular transmission and the crossing of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Our aim is to provide an updated overview of molecules based on these processes that may potentially serve as blood biomarkers.

Concepts Keywords
Biomarkers blood biomarkers
Classical Parkinson’s disease
Invasive pathogenesis
Nigra α-synuclein


Type Source Name
disease MESH Parkinson’s disease
disease MESH neurodegenerative disease
drug DRUGBANK Dopamine
disease MESH disease progression
drug DRUGBANK Aspartame
disease MESH pathogenesis

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